Tennis Serve Technique – 7 Steps To Correct Serve

Nov 26

A tennis serve is a weapon only when the technique is correct. When the serve technique is not correct, then the serve is often more a liability than an asset.

In order to learn correct tennis serve technique, simple serving tips won’t get you there.

Instead you need to follow step-by-step progressions that build the service motion from the ground up.

The following technical progressions of building a proper tennis serve can be used to correct your existing serve techniques if you find your serve ineffective.

[sociallocker id=”1622″]Tennis Serve Checklist (Right-click and select “Save As…” to download)[/sociallocker]

These step by step serve lessons can also be used if you’re a total beginner and want to learn correct serving technique from scratch.

Step 1: The Stance

A proper tennis serve stance is when your feet are positioned so that the front foot is pointing towards the right net post (for right-handers) and the back foot is parallel to the baseline.

Basic tennis serve stance

Basic serve stance gives you balance in all directions

The toes of the back foot are also roughly aligned with the heel of the front foot because you need to be stable in all directions once you initiate and execute your full service motion.

This is a basic stance which you adjust depending on which direction you’re serving to.

If you’re a tennis beginner starting to learn correct serve technique, I suggest you start learning the serve from the ad side because there is less difference in the direction of the swing path and the actual ball flight, which makes it easier to master at these early stages of learning.

There are two types of stances on the serve: the platform stance and the pin-point stance.


The platform serve stance is where the feet remain in the same position throughout the whole service motion.


You simply bend your knees, coil and tilt your body and push off upwards into the serve.

Pin point and platform serve stance

Pin point vs platform stance (Images credit:

The pin-point serve stance, on the other hand, is where you initiate the serve from a platform stance, but as you toss the ball up, you bring the back foot closer to the front foot and then push off upwards towards the ball.


Both serve stances in tennis are correct, but typically the platform stance is used by more explosive players and the pin-point stance is used by taller players that are not looking for so much explosive power off the ground.

Step 2: The Grip

A proper tennis serve grip technique is to hold a continental grip.

There are many descriptions for how to find this grip. The one I’ll use makes it easy to check if your grip is really a continental grip.

Grip the racquet like a hammer and hold the racquet with the edge perpendicular to the ground, as shown in the picture.

Then place your left index finger in the “valley” between the thumb and the index finger of your right hand (for right-handers), just next to the bone on the thumb.

Now check where your left index finger is pointing on the racquet handle. It should point to the top left edge on the racquet handle.

continental tennis serve grip

One of the ways to check if you hold a continental grip…

The way you hold your racquet determines many things about the final serve technique and its effectiveness.

That’s why it’s crucial that you grip the racquet correctly.

In the ServeUnlocked course, I share two more tips on the grip. First, I explain how to grip the racquet with fingers spread more apart and why that helps with pronation.

Then I describe how to find a loose grip using a little exercise just before you start your serving ritual.

Step 3: The Hitting Part – Loose Drop, Swing Up And Pronation

The hitting part is where the serve happens either correctly or incorrectly.

Think of the backswing elements ‒ like coiling, bending your knees, swinging the racquet back, maintaining the trophy position and so on ‒ simply as ways of gathering energy.

You are simply accumulating energy in order to release it explosively into the contact with the ball.

It is this hitting moment that defines whether the ball is hit correctly (flat, topspin or slice) and cleanly or not.

The elements above are not directly responsible for correct hitting of the ball, although they influence it.

I can, for example, demonstrate incorrect backswing, trophy position, have no coiling in the body, completely straight legs and STILL hit a CLEAN and correct flat or topspin or slice serve – except that it will have less power and I’ll be more uncomfortable.

On the other hand, I can do the elements before the contact correctly and still not hit the ball correctly because I am not using my hand, forearm and arm correctly through the contact phase.

There are smaller parts of the hitting part:

  • loose drop of the racquet and arm
  • swing up & contact
  • pronation

The loose drop before the swing up is achieved by “bouncing” or dangling the racquet behind you.

The serve generates a lot of power because of many body parts dynamically moving when they have to. If we at any moment of the serve stop the movement, we will lose power.

When we teach serve technique in this analytical way of breaking down the whole complex motion into smaller parts since that’s easier to learn, we unfortunately also break down the natural fluid movements of the body.

And the danger in this hitting part of the serve is that we initiate the swing up from a static position which in the long term might become a part of our whole serve technique.

Therefore, I use the “bounce” element to make sure the racquet is moving and that the arm is loosened up before you swing up – because that’s exactly what will happen when you execute the whole tennis service motion.

serve drop drill

The bounce drill

The swing up and pronation parts are best imagined and learned by placing two rows of balls on the ground. The first row of balls is at a roughly 45 degree angle, and the second one is perpendicular to the net.

Two swing paths of a tennis serve

Balls in two rows give you a proper guidance on your serve swing paths.

This gives us a clear mental image of how the racquet and arm must move through the hitting part.

It’s a slight exaggeration at first, which helps the player learn to pronate and to understand that the hitting part of the serve is not one single swing through the ball with the whole arm. That is one of the most common misconceptions and mistakes out there.

The serve might look like that at first glance, which deceives us into interpreting the hitting part of the serve as one straight motion of the arm.

But, as you look closer, especially in slow motion, you realize that the swing towards the ball and movement of the forearm after the contact are not in the same line.

It is the internal rotation of the upper arm and pronation of the forearm that create these two racquet paths before and after contact.

Therefore, imagine swinging towards the ball at a 45 degree angle leading with the edge of the racquet and following the first row of balls.

tennis serve swing path up

The swing path towards the ball

Once you reach the contact, push the racquet head straight towards the net following the second row of balls and finishing on the right side of the body with the buttcap pointing upwards at a roughly 45 degree angle or more and the stringbed pointing towards the back fence.

serve swing path with pronation

Swing path after contact with emphasis on pronation

While you may think that this oversimplifies the hitting part, I can assure you that, once you fluidly merge these two swing paths together, you’ll realize that this is exactly how a flat serve is done.

I personally repeat this part very often with players who are correcting their old serve techniques because it’s exactly here where they get it wrong.

Not only that, if they eventually learn the hitting part well, the dreaded waiter’s serve position of the racquet often disappears because it was simply an indicator of an incorrect hitting part of the serve.

If the waiter’s position persists, then complement the hitting part exercise with additional drills for correcting the waiter’s serve.

Step 4: Backswing & Toss

Now that you have established the hitting part, you need to get to that stage from the initial serving position.

This part combines the backswing with the toss because they happen simultaneously.

The serve toss is often quite tricky to master and is often times practiced on its own. My own view is that it should never be practiced without simulating your backswing.

The very common toss drill where you place a target or even your own racquet in front of you on the ground and try to make the toss hit it is, in my opinion, not very effective if at the same time you are not getting into the same serving position as you would in reality.

That’s because if you just try to toss the ball in the target you won’t move any other body parts in order to be accurate.

But when you initiate your serve, you will immediately start turning your body to the side, your dominant arm will start swinging back, you’ll start leaning and coiling, etc.

All these movements must be present also when you just focus on your toss – hence, I consider backswing & toss as one step in this serving progression tutorial.

tennis serve toss technique

Imagine toss more like “‘lifting” the ball rather than ‘throwing’ it

The key points about the toss:

  • Place the ball in the middle of your hand, meaning exactly where the palm spreads out into fingers.
  • Hold the ball with your thumb on top gently.
  • Always toss with a straight arm using only your shoulder joint.
  • Release the ball at around your eye level and keep lifting the arm up following the ball.

If you’re having troubles mastering the toss, look into my ServeUnlocked course that dedicates an entire module to an integrated toss which happens simultaneously with the backswing.

The backswing should be a relaxed swing backwards, as if your arm and the racquet are a pendulum that you swing backwards.

tennis serve backswing

The backswing and toss sequence from the start (Click to enlarge)

The tossing arm moves simultaneously up as the dominant arm swings up.

The tricky thing here is that the tossing arm is much more stiff as it’s lifting the ball accurately up towards the contact point while the serving arm has to be very relaxed.

This is not natural to our body as it tends to tense or relax both arms in a similar manner.

Just something to keep in mind as you’re working on your toss and the backswing and you’re having some trouble synchronizing both arms, keeping one more stiff and the other one more relaxed…

It may be tricky and therefore takes some repetitions and time to master.

As you swing back, your arm eventually ends up in the trophy position as we like to call it.

I suggest you don’t look for a vertical racquet in the trophy position for two reasons:

  1. When your racquet is vertical in the trophy position, it tends to fall back into the waiter’s tray position as gravity likes to take over your hand’s movement.
  2. There is also a much longer loop to be made from that trophy position all the way up until contact. This makes the timing of the toss and the swing up to the ball more difficult, and you may have troubles putting it all together.
    The most common mistake that then happens is making a very shallow drop in order to “make it” in time to the contact point but in the process you’re then losing power.

I suggest bringing your racquet into a more diagonal position which you can determine by bringing the racquet closer to your head and touching it. The bottom edge of the racquet should touch the back of your head.

tennis serve trophy position

My suggested trophy position in a tennis serve

Move the racquet then slightly away from your head and you’ll now be in a good trophy position on your serve.

From there, you will drop the racquet into the loop and find it much easier to time this swing with the ball coming down from the toss.

The whole backswing & toss sequence then consists of swinging both arms simultaneously where the tossing arm lifts the ball up (which you catch again in your hand!) and the hitting arm reaches the trophy position.

Here, the racquet is slightly tilted with the bottom edge of the racquet aligning with the back of your head.

There is one more important part of the backswing & toss sequence, and that’s turning your body parallel to the baseline as you initiate the whole sequence.

You need to initiate everything first through your body rotation, which creates the first impulse from which the arms swing.

coiling on a tennis serve

Initiate your backswing & toss from the body turn

This also starts the coiling phase from which you will generate a lot of power once you start uncoiling.

If you toss the ball up before you start coiling, you’ll probably do much less of a coiling because you’ll be running out of time since your ball will be already in the air. As such, there’s not much time left for you to complete your whole serve up until contact.

I agree that turning the body first and then starting your toss and the backswing makes it more difficult for you to place the ball accurately in your ideal contact point.

However, with some practice, you will surely master it and gain many more benefits from having enough time for your whole serving motion and more power from having more torque in your body.

Step 5: Serve In Two Parts

The serve in two parts consists of step 4 and step 3, meaning we’ll do the backswing & toss first (step 4) and then the hitting part (part 3) in sequence.

Complete first your backswing & toss phase and catch the ball back in your hand while holding your trophy position.

serve backswing into trophy

Part 1: Backswing and toss and catching the ball in your hand

Toss again from this position and complete the hitting part which consists of the drop (bounce) and two swing paths.

serve technique with pronation

Part 2: Hitting action with pronation

You can still keep the balls on the ground in two lines in order to get proper guidance on how to move your racquet in the swing up and pronation phases.

Repeat this process of serving in two parts until you are quite successful with two key points:

  • tossing the ball so accurately that you can catch it back in your hand without moving your feet, and
  • finding your trophy position where the bottom edge is just behind your head without much correcting when you check for it.

When you can toss the ball well and find your trophy position easily through a relaxed backswing, you’re ready to put your serve together.

But before we do that, let’s focus for a little while on a key move that generates a lot of power…

Step 6: The Power Move

The power move is initiated from the trophy position, and two things must happen simultaneously:

  • your racquet starts to drop, and
  • your body starts to rotate/turn forward.

If these two movements happen at the same time, the hitting arm and the racquet will start to lag behind.

whip effect on a tennis serve

Creating lag of the racquet or whip effect which generates effortless power

You will create a stretch through your body going across your shoulder, chest and core all the way down to the left hip (for right-handers).

Imagine it like a giant rubber band that you just stretched fully.

As you can imagine, this rubber band wants to snap back to its original state, and that’s exactly what we want to achieve with our body.

Most tennis players make the mistake of tensing their muscles in this phase of the serve thinking that “strong” muscles will help them hit a “strong” serve.

Sure, you can hit a serve this way and the ball will leave your racquet with some speed, but if you really want to know how the serve works and how the pros do it, then realize that the pros use a different principle of generating power.

The principle of stretching your body and allowing it to snap back generates much more racquet head speed than the principle of tense muscles and thinking you want to be “strong” as you hit your serve.

The tricky thing about the stretch principle is that you must actually RELAX in order to allow your muscles to stretch, which is a very counter-intuitive thing to do just as you’re about to hit a fast serve.

And that’s why most tennis players get the serve wrong and reach their speed plateau very quickly and cannot move beyond it.

That’s also why I am including the power move in these fundamentals of the serve technique in tennis, even though it seems like an advanced technique that only the pros should practice.

The power move has to be practiced often in order to feel the lag of the racquet and how we create a whip effect with it. This effect creates a lot of racquet head speed with little effort.

We initiate the body turn through our hips and then use our trunk and shoulders to rotate forwards while we let the racquet lag or trail behind.

technique for a powerful serve

The power move from the side: drop and turn happening at the same time

This only happens when we relax our arm so that the muscles in the shoulders and chest get stretched.

Since this is a feel-based exercise, we can exaggerate the rotation of the body in order to really feel how the racquet lags and then shoots out from our backswing through the contact zone.

So we can actually turn our body all the way up to the point where we face the net with it.

But keep in mind that, when it comes to correct serve technique, we actually decelerate and stop the body rotation at around a 45 degree angle between the baseline and the net.

In both cases, though, we are using the principle of transfer of momentum which happens only when we decelerate the body.

At that moment, the momentum built in the body is then transferred to the arm.

Since the arm is much lighter than the body and momentum has to be maintained, the arm has to accelerate.

Step 7: Serve With The Follow-Through

The best way to start serving correctly is to do a few serves in two parts and then take a leap of faith and do the complete serve from start to finish.

This is also the stage where I’d like to clarify the follow-through on the serve.

When you watch the pros serve, you’ll see that they finish their serve on the left side of the body (for right-handers) and you may want to copy that.

proper serve technique in tennis

You can see the racquet finishing on the left side of the body but did Ljubicic actually swing that way?

But what happens is that they do not actually swing or forcefully push their racquet to the left side. Instead, it’s simply the inertia and relaxation of their body and the serving arm that swings the racquet in that direction.

In other words, the follow-through on the left side happens. We don’t do it.

What we do, meaning the direction of our swing and force, is that we swing outwards towards the ball. For right-handers, that’s forward and right, roughly at 45 degrees which then changes as pronation takes place.

As soon as we finish the pronation, we start to relax our body and arm (since all the work is done and the ball is on the way), which eventually brings the arm to the left side.

tennis serve follow-through

The follow-through on the left side of the body happens, we ‘don’t do it.’

So, keep in mind that some parts of the serve are done by an intentional swing and applying force and some parts of the serve just happen because of relaxation and inertia.

Therefore, you shouldn’t try to “do” the parts of the serve that just happen.

Finding Flow – How To Generate Effortless Power From Step-by-Step Mechanics

Because we have been breaking down the serve into smaller parts so that they are easier to learn, we have unfortunately also broken down the natural flow of the body.

We stopped moving our body fluidly, making our movements now very mechanical.

Therefore, we must re-establish the natural flow of the body which is another key element of generating effortless power on the serve.

We find flow through drills that make us move our body continuously without stopping or any jerky movements.

One the best tennis training aids to do that is the Serve Master by Lisa Dodson. (affiliate link)

You use the Serve Master by swinging it in a continuous manner that simulates the whole service motion. That exercise helps you re-establish the flow of your body and feel the effects of it as you realize that you can accelerate the balls at the end of the Serve Master quite effortlessly.

ServeMaster tennis training aid

Swinging the ServeMaster helps you re-establish the natural flow of the body

You can of course also use the ball on the string or the famous trick with a couple of tennis balls in a long sock. Either of these will also help you feel the fluidity of the service motion.

Another good exercise that you can do with the racquet is the three-finger drill where you hold the racquet with only your thumb, index and middle finger.

This prevents you from holding the racquet tight as you go through your service motion and therefore creates a very fluid movement.

You can also work on one technical element while you do the above exercise. Namely, you can do the “Edges exercise” in which you always lead with the edge in any direction that you move your racquet.

tennis serve drill

The ‘Edges drill’ where you always lead with the edge as you swing your racquet

That helps you prevent the waiter’s tray mistake that happens often and also trains your arm and forearm how to be positioned throughout the service motion.


A tennis serve is the most challenging stroke to master.

Here are just some of the key reasons:

  1. A relaxed and loose way of accelerating the racquet gives you more power than tensing your body and arm and hitting the ball “hard” even though the latter approach seems to make more sense at first glance.
  2. There are two swing paths of the racquet where we transition into pronation just before contact rather than the one straight swing path with no pronation that we often perceive as we look at serves of professional tennis players.
  3. We get more power by decelerating the body before contact than if we keep rotating our body through contact, which is a very counter-intuitive thing to do.
  4. We must swing up towards the ball instead of down, even though the target is down in relation to the ball ‒ which again doesn’t make sense at first.
  5. We swing the racquet initially in the other direction than in the direction of the target, and this difference is even bigger when it comes to topspin and slice serves.

The 7 steps of building a proper advanced tennis serve technique described in this article build a solid foundation from which you can then progress to more advanced elements of the serve.

This article also addresses all of the above challenges of a tennis serve that are tricky to understand at first and often lead tennis players in the wrong direction.

In my work with tennis players of all levels, I keep coming back to these fundamentals even when I work on more advanced skills like coiling the body more, jumping into the court, learning the kick and slice serve and so on.

There are of course many drills and exercises that help you address various sticking points that you may have as you’re working on your serve.

I’ve shared many of them for free on this blog, and there are some that you can access only in my ServeUnlocked video course that goes much more in-depth on:

  • unlocking the mental locks that hold you back from hitting your best serves,
  • unlocking the body by showing you drills on how to loosen up your wrist,
  • understanding the difference between speed and “strength” and how to learn a fast, effortless serve, and
  • understanding how to integrate the toss into your service motion and how to troubleshoot it.

The ServeUnlocked video course also includes the extended version of these 7 Steps To Proper Serve Technique where I share additional tips on the grip, racquet acceleration, coordination of both arms and even how to use your shadow on a sunny day to correct your serve technique! 😉


tennis serve video course

The extended version also includes clips of regular tennis players where I point out their mistakes and how to correct them.

But, as I mentioned before, you really need to master the fundamentals of the serve technique which are crucial for learning how to hit a correct tennis serve with good power and consistency.

You can see a big change in the serve technique of Andrea in the video below which compares the “before and after” service motions.

All his progress, which took only a few days, was thanks to continuous repetition of the fundamental drills and techniques described in this article.

I hope this points you in the right direction of taming the most challenging tennis stroke.

But keep in mind that really mastering a tennis serve technique takes years of dedicated practice – which, by the way, is definitely attainable even by recreational tennis players as long as they follow proper progressions and are willing to dig deep into the mysteries of a tennis serve.

Leave a Comment:

(55) comments

Richard November 26, 2015

Tomaz – you are the best online coach. Nuff said.

    Tomaz November 27, 2015

    Doing my best to help out, especially with the serve as it’s a cause for so much frustration on tennis courts…

Malcolm November 27, 2015

Eureka moment on seeing the two angles separated by 45 degrees in the hitting section.
Can’t wait to get on the tennis court to try this out.
Many thanks.

    Tomaz November 27, 2015

    Great, just start nice and easy, your arm may not be used to this movement.

Kam.mafi November 27, 2015

dear Tomaz, you are an excellent tennis coach,
I foun your Tennis serve tutorial course
extremely useful, appreciated very much

Ken November 27, 2015

It’s Thanksgiving holiday’s here in USA Tomaz – a time where folks traditionally give thanks and, as I can see from your email you are aware, also take advantage of ‘black Friday’ Christmas shopping frenzy…

I’ve thanked you in numerous posts but text tidbits on your blog here but those do not a meal make – so I will happily take advantage of your sale for ‘Serve Unlocked’ – principally as my small way of thanking you again… And then discovering what you are possibly keeping ‘fee based’ from your incredibly complete public serve curriculum…!

Thanks to you, my serve is in pretty good shape… And I’m having fun with the rest of my game… And on many levels this is as a result of your contemplative blog…

I can’t wait to see where your tennis mind takes this community next…!

    Tomaz November 27, 2015

    Thank you very much, Ken, I really appreciate it.

    But worry not, I have an interesting course in the works, hope to release it in a couple of months!

Marian November 27, 2015

A few weeks ago, I bought access to your “Serve unlocked” and I am amazed. In just a few days I began to feel tremendous deference in my serving technique. I consider myself a “student of the game” and in the last 30 years I gathered extensive library of books, videos and DVDs from the best couches including Vic Braden, Van de Meer, Bolittieri and many others, I also have a membership in since 1996, and buy courses offered on line.

Compared to all the” technical “and overly rigid systems, your approach to teach serve is so natural and so refreshing, > it feels like fresh wind in the sails<. I can only congratulate you.

I bought access to your videos as a gift for myself for my 65th Birthday and I did not expect that in just a few days I will begin to hit ball so fluidly and effortlessly. What a change.
Thank you, —Marian

You mention — in your email — that you have now Extended Version of "Serve Unlocked". Could you please tell me if there are significant differences between the extended version and the one which I just bought a few weeks ago? Thank you again. —Marian

    Tomaz November 27, 2015

    Thanks a lot for this wonderful feedback, Marian!

    The extended version refers to the video in this article where I share additional tips in each section.

    This is now ALREADY part of the ServeUnlocked course.

    Just login again into the course and you’ll see a new menu item called Technique under which are all the extended clips.

DOMINIQUE November 28, 2015

Bonjour Tomaz!
Je regarde souvent des vidéos de tennis et j’ai rarement vu et entendu des démonstrations et des explications aussi simples et claires que les vôtres.
Merci d’éclairer mon plaisir d’apprendre et de comprendre!

Guillermo November 28, 2015


Like all the other folks that wrote before, I am very thankful for what you are doing to help students learn tennis. I found is not an easy subject to teach, and you do a great job!

I purchased your Serve Unlocked course and really enjoyed it.

I have a question that I cannot find the answer, which somehow seems overlooked. A lot of articles and videos relate to power in the serve. However I cannot find a method for consistency. My teacher always tells me: get 10 serves in, focus only on that… and I don’t know what to do… the pronation, stance, all technical elements seem not to help when what is at stake is having a reliable serve that simply does the job of getting the 1st serve in most of the time. Do you have any thoughts on this regard? What would you suggest doing to increase consistency?


    Tomaz November 28, 2015

    Thanks, Guillermo.

    Consistency has not much to do with technique but mostly with feel and repetition.

    You can see many recreational tennis players with poor technique and yet very consistent serves.

    They’ve hit thousands of them by now and they have the right feel of how to swing so that the ball lands in.

    So when you work on consistency, DON’T THINK about technique!

    Only see where the ball lands and adjust: imagine it more to the left or more to the right or higher or lower and then just repeat the serve again aiming only in your mind.

    Please look at the Aiming With The Arm vs Aiming In The Mind video under Mind Unlocked module.

Michael November 28, 2015

Hi Tomaz,

Thank you for another fantastic article. I have been following your articles for about ten years now, back from the days of your Tennis Mind Game website. Every article has at least one “gem”. I love the visualization aid using the lines of balls. What a great idea!

I’m writing here to strongly recommend your Serve Unlocked program to other readers of you blog. I signed up for Serve Unlocked about a year ago and have followed and practised all the lessons you have in there. Over this time I have transformed my serve from the weakest and most inconsistent stroke in my game to equal strongest (with my forehand). This has improved my confidence tremendously, which has had a positive “knock-on” effect on the rest of my game.

Thank you again for all that you have given to the tennis community around the world.

(Springwood Tennis Club, Australia)

    Tomaz November 28, 2015

    Thank you so much for this kind feedback, Michael.

    The serve is a real tricky stroke, much more than any other in tennis, and so one needs to be patient in learning all the little nuances of the serve that eventually unlock it and make it a weapon.

    Thanks again and stay in touch!

Dave November 29, 2015


Thank you for another informative article. I’ve followed your previous posts which has definitely improved my serve, but I still have a problem getting the timing right for the drop (bounce) through to pronation. Also I often catch the ball above the sweet spot on the racket.

The seven steps have I believe put me back on course to getting my serve right. The body turn on lifting the ball has put me in the correct ready position. Also the two angles for the ‘hitting action with pronation’ has made the process clear to me now.

Thank you

    Tomaz November 29, 2015

    Thanks, Dave.

    Experiment with the height of your toss to see if you like a different rhythm and timing that happens because of that.

    Good to hear you’re on the right track now!

LakeSnake December 2, 2015

Serve Unlocked is great! It seems you’ve honed in on the exact problems rec players have and discovered simple ways to correct them. My instructor never told me any of this stuff and so my serve was just a weak pancake. The way good servers served was mysterious and impossible. I have improved a lot from your free videos and I have already had a breakthrough on the flat serve. Thanks for the Black Friday promotion!

Gareth December 4, 2015

Hi Tomaz,
Just a message to say thanks for this incredible coaching resource. Its really helped me in correcting my tennis waiters serve here in Ireland.


    Tomaz December 6, 2015

    You’re very welcome, and thanks for the kind feedback!

Richard December 7, 2015

Fantastic progression, must have taken a long time to get such a professional presentation. Thanks

José December 16, 2015

My question is when I go from the trofy position to the contact of hiting. My feeling is the racquet head closes sending the ball into the net. what’s can I do to correct it?

    Tomaz December 17, 2015

    Hello José,

    What may be happening is that you’re hitting the ball down while doing the “2” of the hitting part, meaning the pronation.

    I know it seems like we hit the ball that way but it’s an illusion. The “2” part happens AFTER contact.

    Try hitting a few balls upwards first doing only the bounce and “1” and stopping your racquet at contact point.

    So better understand how we hit up and how the move “2” happens after contact, see the video on hitting up on the serve.

Henry January 11, 2016


The part where you put the balls on the court to show the 2-part swing path really helps. Thank you so much for such a great video!


Christiane Groß January 29, 2016

Hi Tomaz,
It’s time to say thank you for all your good advice. Following your drills I was able to make especially my spin and slice much better.

Your good explanations gave me answers to my questions, which my club trainers never sufficiently did.

It was also very helpful that you put a focus on themes, which were never mentioned by my trainer, such as “early and clear intention”, “creating and using more groundforce” or “watching the ball longer than usual”.

At least I was never aware how important this is for a good stroke but was astonished to feel the difference. Well, I am still working on it, trying to keep some of you advice like a Mantra in my mind. 😉

    Tomaz January 30, 2016

    Thank you very much, Christiane.

    I am glad to hear that these tips that go beyond the obvious help you improve your game.

    Stay in touch, more articles on the way…

Rakesh Naidu February 20, 2016

Thanks Tomaz.. Am using your serve technique. Trying to improve and work on consistency. your video on 3 different tosses for 3 servers is very useful as well.

Thanks for everything

Rakesh from India

Guillermo V. March 30, 2016

Hello Tomaz,

You should consider placing a pinterest button on your posts. I would love to pin your articles and that way other people can visit your site.

Thanks for the great instruction!

    Tomaz April 1, 2016

    Thanks! The Pinterest icon pops up when you hover an image in a post. Try it!

Luigi May 10, 2016

Dear Tomaz,

first of all I really want to thank you so much for your excellent work in providing tennis players all over the world with such incredibly brilliant lessons! Despite I am novice in playing tennis (I’ve started about seven months ago at 37 years old and never held a raquet before in my life!), I’ve found great usefulness and significant improvement thanks to your videos and all the suggestions, drills, crystal clear explanations that you share with us. Honestly, you’ve taught me a lot of things that my coach has never told me…!!

Going now into the topic of your post and of my comment to it (which is rather a question than a comment): the serve. Still a very challenging shot for me, much more than basic groundstrokes, especially the pronation phase. Anyway, I’ve watched your videos about the serve and pronation technique for several times so that I’m now building up quite a clear mental image of the whole thing and progressively improving each time I train on the court.

What I’ve observed on myself is that while I can now serve with some consistence from left to right (I’m a right-handed player), I have much more problems when attempting the serve from right to left. The main drawback for me is that I’m not able to control the ball direction or, in other terms, I’m probably so focused in trying to shoot the ball to the left service rectangle that I lose control on the whole serve motion, resulting in a very confused and unsuccessful shot; if I can hardly hit the court, it is absolutely just for random coincidence!

If I’ve understood correctly from your lessons (and also by watching the pros on TV), body orientation and feet stance should be exactly the same from both sides of the midline. That is, with feet quite parallel to the baseline and body at about a 45 degree angle towards the right for a right-handed player, isn’t it?
So my question is: starting from exactly the same position, what are the physical mechanisms that allow to properly orient the ball (and the serve in general) to opposite sides of the court? Is it a different way of orienting the raquet surface at contact, body orientation, a different way to pronate…???
My coach tells me that I should start body rotation much earlier than I do for the other side, in order to face with my body the left side of the court well before contact and to open my wrist so that the strings on the raquet also face the left side…but in my opinion this is going to resemble the waiter’s serve in practice, which is a totally wrong technique, isn’t it?
What shall I do then, except for changing my coach…?

I’m still puzzling a lot over how to solve this matter, probably due to my lack of knowledge and experience about the correct technique.
I wonder whether this is a common weak point for other beginners like me, so that a special tutorial from you dedicated to this issue might be of interest for your community of followers. However, I’m sure that even a simple written explanation from you would help me a lot!

Sorry for bothering you with such a long winded comment and thanks very much again for your outstanding way of teaching tennis!

Take care,

(Lucca, Italy)

    Tomaz May 10, 2016

    Hello Luigi,

    Thanks a lot for this kind feedback and a good question.

    While we have to learn the mechanical part of the serve consciously, we DO NOT learn how to hit targets consciously.

    The difference in angles of the racquet are way too small and they happen too fast for our conscious mind to track that.

    We need to follow the process of adjusting which you have done many times in your life when learning different skills like driving, using a computer mouse and so on.

    You attempt a shot, see where it goes, and then simply “want it” to go somewhere else based on the feedback from your previous shot.

    I’ve explained this in the articles on adjusting and how to quickly improve accuracy of your shots.

    Let me know if that helps.

      Luigi May 18, 2016

      Hi again Tomaz and thanks a lot for your kind reply.

      I’ve just watched the articles that you mentioned. They look so simple and direct and I’m sure they are very effective too in practice.

      So, to briefly summarize your thought, it is just a matter of little, continuous and subjective (not clearly explainable nor necessarily identical for every player) adjustments which everyone experiences with time and practice on the court.
      Differently, it has nothing to do with a specific part of the technique or motion in this case. Am I right?

      Then, what I have to do is:
      1. trying to think (and want) to serve to the opposite side of the court while keeping the same stance, position and body/raquet orientation
      2. see where the ball goes
      3. adjust for the target by keeping the same will and perseverance in aiming at it or close to it accordingly.

      I know this appears an extreme simplification of the mental process but….does it approximately depict what you mean?

      If so, I feel very much relieved in discovering that I don’t have to look for further major technical changes, specifically not to orient my body and raquet towards the target as I was uncorrectly told by my coach.

      Thank you very much, Tomaz! Hope I’ll give you positive feedbacks soon about my improvements.

      Best wishes and keep doing great tennis articles!


        Tomaz May 18, 2016

        Yes, Luigi, it’s that simple. The same process as if for example you would be throwing the ball with your arm or if for example you played basketball and you missed.

        What technical correction would you do if you missed the basket by 20 cm on the left side of the ring? 😉

        Obviously nothing technical, you would just aim more to the right…

Dee May 20, 2016

The BEST instruction on serve!

Alan Dworsky June 1, 2016

Thank you so much Tomaz–your video on the serve is a work of instructional art!

Just one question: where do I point my feet when serving from the deuce court? You give a little guidance, saying I’m going to have to adjust from the stance that you recommend for serving from the ad court. But I’m not sure I understand what’s happening in the serve well enough to decide how much to adjust my stance.

    Tomaz June 1, 2016

    Hi Alan, your feet should just angle a bit towards the deuce court, I would say the angle is maybe 15-20 degrees more.

Denys June 18, 2016

Good morning Tomaz,
Could you add some discussion on this “serve-technique” page:

1. Is it necessary to jump on hitting the serve or this is the result of the racket pulling the player up due to the circular motion?

2. What role do the core muscles play when serving? Roddick’s technique required the ultimate participation of core muscles.

Thank you very much and I hope you do not regret having shared your tennis knowledge.
Best wishes,

    Tomaz June 18, 2016

    Good, questions, Denys.

    1. We don’t jump really, it’s the momentum of swinging upwards and leg drive upwards into the ball that make us “leave the ground”. This is basically just a consequence of adding more power to the serve – of course done in a correct way by driving with the legs first.

    2. Core muscles do at least in my case about 50% of the power in the serve. But core doesn’t simply work in the same way as when we do “crunches” which is just linear movement. Instead we try to coil and create torque in the core that we then use to uncoil.

Deo L July 29, 2016

Hi Tomaz! Thank you very much for this very easy to follow technique. I have my daughter (8 yrs old) practicing this technique for 2 months because her previous tennis school taught her the pancake serve (waiter serve), which takes time to break the bad habit. Now, she mastered the slice serve and having an Ace on her matches. Thank you very much and really appreciate your help.

ian August 11, 2016

Hi Tomaz,
you advise people to start learning to serve from the ad side of the court.
What changes have to be made regarding foot position, ball toss and racquet path when serving from the deuce side?

    Tomaz August 11, 2016

    Hi Ian,

    There is very little difference in the stance or the ball toss if you serve to the deuce side but the swing path changes a bit more – you swing more towards the court and not so much to the side.

    Now how “much less to the side” you swing if very hard to describe in words. Try changing your foot position and swing paths by just a little bit and see where the ball goes then just keep adjusting until you find the right serve.

Roy August 12, 2016

Well presented.

Ntokozo November 6, 2016

Hi Tomaz
So do you recommend the platform stance for the short players (I’m 1.59) and I find the pin point stance comes naturally for me as opposed to the platform stance. I’m still a beginner, two years in the game now and loving it! Thank you for this online lesson, very informative.

    Tomaz November 6, 2016

    Hi Ntokozo,

    I teach beginners platform stance so that there are less moving parts and less chance of something going wrong.

    But if it feels naturally for you to serve in a pin point stance, then just go for it.

Sigurd December 5, 2016

Tomas: do you principally recommend the same serve technique with power move and racket head position in the OH smash? Thanks, Sigurd

    Tomaz December 5, 2016

    Hi Sigurd,

    Yes, a smash is basically a serve without the backswing and without the follow-through.

Maggi January 20, 2017

The way u teach is the best.

Your techniques help me to a great extent.

John March 11, 2017

Hi, When I try to do the 45° racquet edge lead before pronation, I always end up making it 1 movement. How do I fix this?

    Tomaz March 11, 2017

    Try doing the drills in slow motion, John.

    Also, without the ball for a while. Then introduce the ball.

    Then try again the next day. The body needs a few days to reprogramme the new movements.

Edward April 12, 2017

I enjoy and look forward to every video, thank you.

Marise April 25, 2017

Hi Thomaz! I have been playing for many years. After watching videos on line I realized I was using the wrong grip and was doing the waiter tray.

I am working on the tips and very informative videos you have provided. I am however having such a hard time with the back drop.

I have a flexible shoulder but I rush the serve which ends up with the waiter tray. I guess lack of confidence is the problem.

Since I have changed my grip my serves are in the box but are weak. I really want to learn to serve the correct way.

Your videos are a great help. Thank you!

    Tomaz April 26, 2017

    You’re very welcome, Marise!

    Go through the various articles in the serve section and make sure you do the drills.

    The body learns by doing so stick with them for a while.

Jen Tang June 6, 2017


I am so grateful for having found your website which consists of so many useful videos and professional coaching particularly helpful for a tennis player who are self-taught most of the time.

This video on serving with very clear instructions even covering well justified reasons for the right way of doing the proper serve is really appealing. I love it so much.

I will definitely watch all other videos and try to improve my skills.


    Tomaz June 6, 2017

    Thanks for the kind feedback, Jen, glad that the serve video article helped!

Mikfra June 26, 2017

Hi Tomaz,

Hope you are doing well. What do you think about tossing the ball completely before moving the racket?

That’s what I’m doing right now. I toss the ball up, then start to take the racket towards the trophy pose, then do the swing. It is a little bit rushed but at least a contininous movement.

When trying to toss and move the racket at the same time, my toss is going all over the place.


    Tomaz June 26, 2017

    Hi Mikfra,

    If that works for you, then keep doing it.

    As you said, the service motion will be rushed and possibly tense. Toss high enough!

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